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Ceiling light installation is a job that can be done by a knowledgeable homeowner. If you're at all uncertain about your skills, though, protect yourself and hire a licensed electrician.
Unless you're installing a flush-mount ceiling light, you should be able to fit the business end of the fixture into a standard-sized electrical box. If there's already a box in the right place on your ceiling, great! If not, you'll need to install the box.
For a heavier fixture, be sure you get the kind of box that can be nailed onto a ceiling joist. Measure and mark the spot twice before cutting into your ceiling, and double-check that the power to the affected part of your house is off.
To get the best results, the bottom of the ceiling box should be flush with the ceiling surface. Then you can attach the wiring and fasten the fixture to the box.